OAIS - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (
NASA, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS)
original request 1995
conceptual framework for a complete, generic archival system, with a specific focux on long-term preservation

specifically: CCSDS-650.0-R-2 (PDF) (
local copy

Cedars (
Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) - universities of Leeds, Oxford and Cambridge
The Cedars Project is a Higher Education initiative funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee. It officially began on the 1st April 1998. The funding was awarded to the Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) and the work is carried out on behalf of CURL by three CURL institutions - Leeds, Oxford and Cambridge.
    Cedars stands for "CURL exemplars in digital archives" and the main objective of the project is to address strategic, methodological and practical issues and provide guidance in best practice for digital preservation. It will do this by work on two levels - through practical demonstrator projects which will provide concrete practical experience in preserving digital resources and through strategic working groups based on broad concepts or concerns which will articulate preferences and make recommendations of benefit to the wider community. The main deliverables of the project will be recommendations and guidelines as well as practical robust and scaleable models for establishing distributed digital archives.

other Documents: Review of metadata for digital preservation (

universities of Michigan (USA) and Leeds (UK)
Creative Archiving at Michigan and Leeds: Emulating the Old on the New.
    The CAMiLEON Project will evaluate emulation as a digital preservation strategy by developing emulation tools, cost-benefit analysis and user evaluation. The project is a joint undertaking between the universities of Michigan (USA) and Leeds (UK) and is funded by JISC and NSF.

Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Information
Jeff Rothenberg
(Scientific American, Vol. 272, Number 1, pp.42-7)
January 1995
In this article, Jeff Rothenberg discusses the fragile nature of digitally recorded information and the numerous factors, technological and otherwise, that must be addressed if we are to ensure the continued accessibility of this information over time. The article is an expanded version of the article "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Documents" that appeared in "Scientific American".

response: Dr. John W. C. Van Bogart, NML: Mag Tape Life Expectancy 10-30 years (
local copy

Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling - A Guide for Libraries and Archives (
Dr. John W.C. Van Bogart
National Media Laboratory
June 1995
This report is a joint project of the Commission on Preservation and Access and the National Media Laboratory, developed within the Commission's Preservation Science Research initiative. The initiative encourages new techniques and technologies to manage chemical deterioration in library and archival collections and to extend their useful life.

Preserving Digital Information (
local copy

Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information
The Commission on Preservation and Access and The Research Libraries Group
May 1, 1996
The purpose of the Task Force was to investigate the means of ensuring "continued access indefinitely into the future of records stored in digital electronic form." The group was composed of individuals drawn from industry, museums, archives and libraries, publishers, scholarly societies and government.

Digital Preservation (
A collaborative project of the companies Kodak, AIIM-International, and Lockheed Martin.

other Documents: Kodak's approach (Change Media) (

PreScript (
New Zealand Digital Library Project
PostScript conversion to plain ASCII or HTML